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Duration of Contact Precautions GUIDELINES Pocket Card


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Healthcare-Associated Infections GUIDELINES Pocket Card

A Compendium of Prevention Recommendations

SHEA, IDSA, AHA, APIC, The Joint Commission

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Animals in Healthcare Facilities GUIDELINES Pocket Card

A Compendium of Prevention Recommendations

SHEA, IDSA, AHA, APIC, The Joint Commission

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Isolation Precautions for Visitors GUIDELINES Pocket Card

A Compendium of Prevention Recommendations

SHEA, IDSA, AHA, APIC, The Joint Commission

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Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Surgery


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Antimicrobial Stewardship


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This section is not intended to be a comprehensive list, but a starting point to help you gather information on epidemiology, infection prevention, infectious diseases, and quality improvement.

SHEA is not responsible for the content of these sites, and their inclusion does not imply endorsement.

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International Resources



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Translation provided by Northern Inyo Hospital Northern Inyo County Local Hospital District

Rationale for Hand Hygiene Recommendations after Caring for a Patient with Clostridium difficile Infection - Fall 2011 Update

This brief responds to Questions that frequently arise in regards to the recommended method of hand hygiene after caring for patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The brief clarifies that although soap and water is superior to removing C. difficile spores from hands of volunteers compared to alcohol-based hand hygiene products, there have been no studies in acute care settings that have demonstrated an increase in CDI with alcohol-based hand hygiene products or a decrease in CDI with soap and water. This is why preferential use of soap and water for hand hygiene after caring for a patient with CDI is not recommended in non-outbreak settings.
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Chinese Translation

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Part IV


In 2003, the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Foundation published recommendations for infection prevention and control (IP&C) in an effort to reduce the risk of acquisition and transmission of pathogens among people with CF.1 However, both IP&C and CF are dynamic disciplines, and during the past decade new knowledge and new challenges necessitated the development of updated IP&C strategies for this unique population.

Healthcare personnel (HCP) attire is an aspect of the medical profession steeped in culture and tradition. From Hippocrates's admonition that physicians' dress is essential to their dignity, to the advent of nurses' uniforms under the leadership of Florence Nightingale, to the white coat ceremonies that continue to this day in medical schools, HCP apparel and appearance is associated with significant symbolism and professionalism. Recent years, however, have seen a rising awareness of the potential role of fomites in the hospital environment in the transmission of healthcare-associated microorganisms. Although studies have demonstrated contamination of HCP apparel with potential pathogens, the role of clothing in transmission of these microorganisms to patients has not been established. The paucity of evidence has stymied efforts to produce generalizable, evidence-based recommendations, resulting in widely disparate practices and requirements that vary by country, region, culture, facility, and discipline. This document is an effort to analyze the available data, issue reasonable recommendations, and describe the needs for future studies to close the gaps in knowledge on HCP attire.

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Three family education guides focusing on hand hygiene, respiratory etiquette, and safe handling of blood and body fluids were also created as part of this guideline but are not contained in this document. These guides are tools to educate families about how to help with minimizing the risk of pathogen transmission. These guides can be found at Patient Guides on Healthcare-Associated Infections.

The guidelines are intended to provide practitioners with a standardized approach to the rational, safe, and effective use of antimicrobial agents for the prevention of surgical-site infections (SSIs) based on currently available clinical evidence and emerging issues.

Press Release
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In their recent Clinical Practice Guideline ‘Prevention of Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Patients Undergoing Dental Procedures’, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) reversed their 2009 informational statement, which asserted that “given the potential adverse outcomes and cost of treating an infected joint replacement, the AAOS recommends that clinicians consider antibiotic prophylaxis for all total joint replacement patients prior to any invasive procedure that may cause bacteremia.” After a comprehensive literature review by the work group, this statement was replaced with a recommendation that acknowledges the lack of evidence to support this practice. In deciding whether to endorse the most recent AAOS guideline, the SHEA Board expressed concern about the potentially confusing language of the recommendation: “The practitioner might consider discontinuing the practice of routinely prescribing prophylactic antibiotics for patients with hip and knee prosthetic joint implants undergoing dental procedures;” however, the Board ultimately voted to endorse the guideline because it overrides the 2009 guideline. SHEA’s position on the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis before dental work in patients who have prosthetic joints is that the evidence does not support its routine use.

Creutzfeldt‐Jakob disease (CJD) is a degenerative neurologic disorder of humans. CJD is caused by a proteinaceous infectious agent. Prion diseases elicit no immune response, result in a noninflammatory pathologic process confined to the central nervous system, have an incubation period of years, and usually are fatal within 1 year after diagnosis.


This guideline provides the updated recommendations of SHEA regarding the management of healthcare providers who are infected with HBV, HCV, and/or HIV. SHEA continues to recommend that, although some aspects of the approach to and administrative management of each of these infectious syndromes in healthcare providers are similar, separate management strategies for healthcare workers who are infected with these unrelated viruses remain appropriate. SHEA emphasizes the use of appropriate infection control procedures to minimize exposure of patients or providers to blood, emphasizes that transfers of blood from patients to providers and from providers to patients should be avoided, and recommends that infected healthcare providers should not be totally prohibited from participating in patient‐care activities solely on the basis of a bloodborne pathogen infection.

Review Statement: 

This guideline was reviewed in July 2017 by the SHEA Guidelines Committee. The committee acknowledges portions of the guideline need to be revised based on new evidence, improved antiviral treatment regimens, and changes to reporting practices; however, the committee voted to keep it available on the SHEA website as numerous recommendations and most of the background information remains current and may inform regulations and individual institution's decisions. Questions and clarifications regarding the posted guideline should be sent to the SHEA Guidelines Committee.

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SHEA Response to Institutions’ Implementation of 2010 Guideline for Healthcare Workers Infected with Bloodborne Pathogens
October 2014

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SHEA and its collaborators work to provide guidance to put the science of healthcare epidemiology and infection prevention into practice through evidence-based guidelines, expert guidance papers (EGs), white papers, and other resources on infection prevention for hospitals, long-term care centers, and other healthcare facilities.

SHEA Handbook for SHEA-Sponsored Guidelines and Expert Guidance Documents


These papers are provided as a professional courtesy by SHEA and Cambridge University to be used for educational purposes only. They may not be reproduced or used for commercial purposes without written permission from SHEA.


SHEA guidelines and EGs are overseen by the SHEA Guidelines Committee. Current guidelines and EGs are reviewed periodically per the process described in the Handbook.

Guidelines and Expert Guidance Documents

SHEA retires guidelines based on new evidence or if revisions have occurred replacing the original document; however, they still may be accessed as a resource.