This SHEA Research Committee document highlights four categories in which gaps exist in antibiotic stewardship (AS) research: 1) a scientifically rigorous evidence base to define optimal antibiotic prescribing practices, which adequately inform AS interventions across a variety of patient populations and settings; 2) effective AS approaches to recognize effective interventions, knowledge of how these interventions can be adapted for implementation both locally and across diverse settings, and an understanding of how interventions can be sustained once implemented; 3) standardized process and outcome metrics; and 4) advanced study designs with appropriate analytic methods, accompanied by infrastructure to support data collection and sharing.

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